Find concepts and theories of psychological science. I include definitions, examples, names of theorists, and references to conceptual articles and research studies. This blog is updated as I write about related terms. I may earn income from purchases of advertised products or links.
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Stress and Coping Theory
as a Response Complex
concept of stress as a factor in human experience has been viewed in several
ways. In 1956, Hans Selye described stress as a physiological response pattern.
In his General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) model, stress is a response variable. Stress
functions as a defense and the response patterns has three stages: alarm,
resistance, and exhaustion. When the stress response is severe, it may cause
diseases of adaptation (e.g., sleep deprivation, mental illness, heart disease)
Selye included a role for cognition—the way people think about stress can lead
to positive or negative outcomes. The idea of coping with stress is a part of
the model as reflected in the idea of adapting and the role of cognition.
and Transactional Theory
Lazarus (1966; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) developed the Transactional Theory
of Stress and Coping (TTSC). In this theory, stress results from the
transaction between people and their environments. There are multiple
intrapersonal systems such as cognitive, physiological, affective,
psychological, and neurological).
Kobassa (1979) employed the concept hardiness to encompass person characteristics
that enable some people to function well when confronted with the same life
events that negatively impacted others.
Lazarus identified cognitive appraisal of stress as the key to understanding how
people cope with stressors.
responses are quite diverse. Cognitive approaches include therapies and meditation.
Physical strategies include deep breathing and exercise. Environmental aids
include pets and music. Religious and spiritual methods include prayer and faith-based
meaning of life events. And in the past few decades, forgiveness has also been
viewed from the perspective of stress and coping theory (e.g., Worthington,